Rights of the Child

Convention on the Rights of the Child for Children
Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted by the General Assembly of UNO on 20 November 1989, and it came into force in 1990. 54 articles of the Convention define the rights of the children and define also the way how a given state can guarantee and defend them. Almost each state of the world ratified this Convention and doing so the states promised to recognize and respect all the rights which are covered here.
Article 1. : Definition of ‘child’
You are a child below the age of eighteen years and you are due to each right which is covered by this Convention.

Article 2. : Prohibiting discrimination
You are due to each right which is covered by this Convention regardless of the fact who you are, who your parents are, which color your skin is, you are a boy or a girl. You are due to each right which is covered by this Convention regardless of your religion, your mother tongue, your handicap, if any, and regardless of the fact that you were born poor or rich.

Article 3. : The best interest of the child
In all actions concerning you, your and other children’s best interests have to be a primary consideration.

Article 4. : Enjoyment of rights covered by this Convention
States have to guarantee the rights covered by this Convention for you and for every child.

Article 5. : Parental guidance and children’s development/progress
Your family’s responsibility is to provide you with a direction and guidance so that you are able to assert your rights while you are getting older. States also have to respect it.

Article 6. : Right to the survival and development
You have the right to the survival and development.

Article 7. : Registration, name, nationality and parental care
You have the right to be registered immediately after birth and you have the right to a name, the right to acquire a nationality. You have the right to know your parents and you have the right to be looked after by your parents.
Article 8. : Preserving your identity
States have to respect your right to preserve your name, your nationality, and family relations

Article 9. : Being separated from your parents
You are not to be separated from your parents unless it is for your best interests (for example if you are abused or neglected by your parents). If your parents are living separately, you have the right to be in touch with your parents unless this contact can be harmful for you.
Article 10. : Family reunification
If your parents reside in different states you have to be able to travel from one state to another so that you can maintain contacts with both parents or so that you can reunify your family and you can live together on the same place.

Article 11. : Protection from/against being taken to another state
States have to take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.

Article 12. : Respecting the child’s views
You have to be provided with the opportunity to express your views in any questions affecting you. Adult people have to respect your views.
Article 13. : Freedom of expression and information
You have the right of information, getting information, seeking, getting and sharing information in any form (in writing or in the form of art, or through television, radio or the Internet) unless the given piece of information is harmful for you or for other people.

Article 14. : Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
You have the right to think what you want, to believe in what you want and to practise your religion freely as long as you do not interfere other people’s rights. Your parents’ responsibility is to provide you with direction on these problems.
Article 15. : Freedom of association and freedom of peaceful assembly
You have the right to meet, and make friends with anyone you want. You have the right to join a team or an organization together with other children as long as you do not interfere other people’s rights.

Article 16. : Privacy, honor and reputation
You have the right to your privacy. Nobody can enter your home, nobody can read your letters or emails and nobody can harass you or your family without a well-founded reason.
Article 17. : Access to information and mass media
You have the right to get pieces of information – for example through books, newspapers, TV, radio or the Internet – which are reliable, useful and understandable for you.

Article 18. : Parents’ common responsibilities
Your both parents have to take part in your upbringing. They have to keep your best interests in their view. States have to take measures, services to help your parents with it especially if your parents are working parents.

Article 19. : Protecting the child from all forms of violence, injury or neglect
States have to ensure that you are looked after appropriately. States have to protect you from all forms of maltreatment, harassment, injury or neglect on your parents’, legal guardians’ or any other adult person’s part.
Article 20. : Alternative care which replaces the family
If your parents and your family are not able to care of you appropriately then other people have to take care of you who respect your religion, your tradition and your mother tongue.

Article 21. : Adoption
If you are adopted the main point has to be your best interests – either you are adopted in your home country or abroad.

Article 22. : Refugee children
If you have to move to another country because your home country is not safe for you then you have the right to protection and help. In your new country you have the same rights as children who were born there.
Article 23. : Disabled children
If you are a disabled child of any kind of deficiency you have to get special care, assistance, and education so that you can live a full and decent life and you can take part in the life of your community to the best of your facilities.

Article 24. : Medical assistance and health care
You have the right to a good standard of health care (for example: medicines, medical and hospital care). You have the right to potable drinking water, nutritious food, clean environment and to get educated how to live a healthy way of life so that you are able to preserve your good health. Richer countries have to help poorer countries with aiming at this target.

Article 25. : Monitoring regularly the care which replaces the family
If instead of your parents a local authority or institution takes care of you, your situation is required to be supervised regularly so that you get the appropriate care and provision.

Article 26. : Social security
The society you live in has to provide you with services which ensure your life and development in good circumstances (for example: appropriate nutrition, health care, social benefits). Needy children and families have to receive special benefits from States.

Article 27. : Appropriate standard of living
You have the right to live in good circumstances so that your physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development is guaranteed. States have to support families that do not have enough money to establish these good circumstances.

Article 28. : Right to education
You have the right to education. School discipline is not to hurt your human dignity. Primary education has to be compulsory and free to all. Richer countries have to help poorer ones to reach this.

Article 29. : Aims of education
Education has to help the development of your personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential. Education has to prepare you for your life and has to motivate you to respect your parents and your country’s and other people’s culture. You have the right to become familiar with your own rights.

Article 30. : Children belonging to minorities and to original inhabitants
You have the right to become familiar with your family’s traditions, religion and mother tongue even if the majority of people living in your home country have different traditions, religion and mother tongue.

Article 31. : Spare time, play and culture
You have the right to rest, play and be involved in recreational and cultural activities.

Article 32. : Employment of children
You have to be protected from performing any work that is likely to be harmful to your health or development, and that interferes with your education, or that makes possible for other people to exploit you.
Article 33. : Children and drug abuse
States have to protect children from the use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and have to prevent children from production and trafficking of such substances.

Article 34. : Protecting children from sexual abuse
You have to be protected by the State from sexual abuse.

Article 35. : Protecting from abduction, from sale and from trafficking
States have to prevent you from being kidnapped, from being sold or from being moved in another country in order to exploit you.
Article 36. : Protection against other forms of exploitation
You have to be protected against all forms of exploitation that may block your development or may damage your physical and mental health.

Article 37. : Protection from torture, degrading treatment or imprisonment
You must not be treated brutally if you have violated the law. You must be separated from adults if you are put to prison and you have the right to maintain contact with your family.

Article 38. : Protection of children who are involved in armed conflicts
If you are a child below the age of fifteen years you must not be recruited into the armed forces by the States, you must not take immediate part in warfare in any way. Children living in territory of war have to get special protection.

Article 39. : Recovery of children victims
If you are a victim of neglect, exploitation, or torture, if you became a victim of a war, if you are put in prison then you have to get special help in order to recover your physical and mental health and to make you be able to reintegrate the life of the society.

Article 40. : Administration of justice for underage
If you are accused because of violation of the law then you must be treated the way that does not hurt your human honor. You have to get legal assistance and you can be sentenced to imprisonment only in the case of the most severe criminal acts.

Article 41. : Obeying the more severe human right laws
If your home country’s laws are in the better interests of children than this Convention, then your home country’s laws have to be observed.

Article 42. : Disseminating the Convention extensively widely
States have to guarantee that all parents, children and institution become familiar with the Convention.

Articles 43-54. : The States’ duties
These articles explain the way the States have to co-operate with the parents in order to guarantee children’s all rights.

Source: Kiskompasz kézikönyv, Foglalkoztatási és Szociális Hivatal – Mobilitás Országos Ifjúsági Szolgálat, 2009